中国

People's Republic of China

Capital Beijing
Official languages Standard Chinese
Ethnic groups

91.51% Han

8.49% Other

Religion

52.2% Irreligious

21.9% Folk Religions

18.2% Buddhists

5.1% Christians

1.8% Muslims

<0.1% Hindus

<0.1% Jews

0.7% Other

Religion

Official:

Theravada Buddhism

Other religions:

Islam

Christianity

other

Demonym Chinese

Government Unitary one-partysocialist republic

• Party General Secretary andPresident Xi Jinping
• Premier Li Keqiang
• First Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli
• Congress Chairman Zhang Dejiang
• Conference Chairman Yu Zhengsheng
• First Secretary of the Secretariat Liu Yunshan
• Secretary of Discipline Inspection Commission Wang Qishan
Legislature National People's Congress

Formation

• First Pre-imperial Dynasty c. 2070 bce
• First Imperial Unification 221 bce
• Republic established 1 January 1912
• People's Republic proclaimed 1 October 1949

Area

• Total 9,596,961 km2(3,705,407 sq mi)
• Water (%) 2.80%

Population

• 2016 estimate 1,373,541,278
• 2010 census 1,339,724,852
• Density 145/km2(375.5/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total $23.2 trillion
• Per capita $16,676
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
•Total $11.8 trillion
•Per capita $8,481
Gini (2015) 46.2
HDI (2015) 0.738
Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥)(CNY)
Time zone China Standard Time(UTC+8)
Date format

yyyy-mm-dd

or yyyy年m月d日

(CE; CE-1949)

Drives on the right
Calling code 86
ISO 3166 code CN
Internet TLD

.cn

.中國

.中国

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau, also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.

China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The world's highest point, Mount Everest (8,848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. The country's lowest point, and the world's third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154m) in the Turpan Depression.

Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM and the G-20.

The PRC has diplomatic relations with 175 countries and maintains embassies in 162. Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition. In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. China was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries. Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the group's third official summit at Sanya, Hainan in April 2011.

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